Philip Sheldrake

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Public Relations Defined – The PRSA invites you to help set a new definition of PR

Here's how the corresponding blog post by the PRSA describes its "Public Relations Defined" initiative:

As part of its mission to advance the public relations profession and professional, the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) has introduced a new initiative to modernize the definition of public relations and increase its value. As the digital age has caused significant shifts in how organizations communicate internally and externally, a question frequently asked by the public, media and practitioners is, "What is public relations?"

The PRSA explains the initiative in these simple terms:

Recent discussions, blog posts, tweets and mainstream articles have suggested that (1) public relations professionals (and, thus, the audiences we serve) continue to struggle with the question: "What is PR?"; (2) many industry professionals are unhappy with the current definitions; and (3) no one definition is considered "the" de facto industry definition.

What more justification do we need?

While my book The Business of Influence sets out to be a rethink of the 'influence disciplines', it starts by reviewing current definitions of marketing and PR. "Well, this book wants to map out a journey from A to B, and navigating to B is so much easier if we're all at A to begin with."

In hoping to contribute to the renewed debate, I've reproduced the book's definitions section here. Now all I need to do is work out if the PRSA will be open to a definition leaning on the Influence Scorecard and the role of Chief Influence Officer. What do you think?


Marketing and public relations

[pp 5-11, Chapter 1, The Business of Influence]

Most readers of this book will be working in, studying, teaching or researching marketing and/or PR. Others will be working in other disciplines central to influence, such as sales and customer service, or senior management figures or management consultants keeping up with the latest ideas. Regardless, I hope you won't mind if we invest some time defining both marketing and PR. Why? Well, this book wants to map out a journey from A to B, and navigating to B is so much easier if we're all at A to begin with. Moreover, experts don’t agree . . .

Marketing

In its 2009 paper, Marketing and the 7Ps [PDF link], the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) defines marketing as 'the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably'. The paper continues:

... the customer is at the heart of marketing, and businesses ignore this at their peril.

In essence, the marketing function is the study of market forces and factors and the development of a company's position to optimise its benefit from them. It is all about getting the right product or service to the customer at the right price, in the right place, at the right time. Both business history and current practice remind us that without proper marketing, companies cannot get close to customers and satisfy their needs. And if they don't, a competitor surely will.

However, the CIM recognized in its 2007 Tomorrow's World paper [PDF link] that its definition harks back to 1976 and could do with an update. The paper identifies a number of reasons why a revision may be needed, including:

  • The discipline has become more sophisticated, possibly demanding subdivision into three broad paths: science, arts and humanities
  • The idea that marketing is no longer a separate role but something everyone in an organization does to a greater or lesser degree
  • The technology revolution has altered the dynamic between an organization and its customers, increasing the power of the customer (the rebalancing we referred to earlier in this chapter)
  • The fragmentation of media and the increasing resistance of audiences to marketing communications
  • The increasing need for numeracy and research fluency
  • The role of people management in the marketing skill set.

While the following definition was mooted in the paper, the CIM does not yet appear to have officially adopted it, or one based on it:

The strategic business function that creates value by stimulating, facilitating and fulfilling customer demand.

It does this by building brands, nurturing innovation, developing relationships, creating good customer service and communicating benefits.

With a customer-centric view, marketing brings positive return on investment, satisfies shareholders and stakeholders from business and the community, and contributes to positive behavioural change and a sustainable business future.

The definition given in what many consider the seminal marketing textbook, Principles of Marketing [ISBN: 9780273711568], is:

Broadly defined, marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others. In a narrower business context, marketing involves building profitable, value-laden exchange relationships with customers. Hence, we define marketing as the process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return.

The American Marketing Association did, however, find itself a new definition in 2007, but to fairly widespread derision:

Marketing is the activity, set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners and society at large.

From my reading various reactions I can say that Mike Smock's blog post, 'Everything that is wrong with marketing can be found in AMA’s new definition,' appears to best capture the mood of those critical of the new definition. The primary criticism appears to be that, unlike CIM's current and drafted definitions – or indeed that provided in Principles of Marketing – the AMA fails to be explicit about marketing's role in contributing to the achievement of a for-profit organization's financial objectives.

The bit about 'society at large' also appears to have ruffled feathers as being too distanced from the cut and thrust of business, but from my perspective it's just one sign of many that marketing fancies itself as the guardian of all things in public relations. The CIM draft definition includes 'developing relationships'. The CIM paper, Marketing and the 7Ps, lists PR under the fourth marketing 'P', promotion. And its paper, Tomorrow's World, clearly references PR to mean spin (spin a yarn, make up a story) rather than anything public relations experts would recognize.

Public relations

I discuss PR with many people in my professional life and find that the majority only have a tenuous grasp of what PR actually encompasses, and many others simply have no idea or, worse, have it wrong. And, as we've seen, that includes professional marketers.

Believe it or not, I've met people who think PR stands for press release. And perhaps I should get over myself, but I have never liked the turn of phrase 'to PR' something. But by far the most common mistake I find is considering PR to be synonymous with media relations – journalist lunches and column inches.

I often start by telling people what PR is not. PR is not marketing. PR is not promotion (coupons, offers, etc.). For more on 'what PR is not', I found a similar list by Bill Sledzik on his blog ToughSledding [this URL is changed from when my book went to press].

The PR role encompasses aspects of publicity and many people referred to as PR practitioners invest much of their time wielding the tools of publicity: press releases, pitches, interviews, etc. (indeed, this aspect has been referred to as 'marketing public relations', which either confuses the matter or clarifies it, depending on your point of view). James Grunig's and Todd Hunt's '4 Models', first presented in 1984 [Managing Public Relations, ISBN: 9780030583377], describe four views of public relations, the first of which is publicity or 'press agentry'. The second is known as the public information model, the third asymmetric persuasion, and the fourth the two-way symmetrical model.

The renowned Excellence study [Excellent public relations and effective organizations, ISBN: 9780805818185] emphasized the fourth model and defined PR as:

a management function that focuses on two-way communication and fostering of mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its publics.

The Public Relations Society of America puts it simply:

Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other.

Terry Flynn, Fran Gregory and Jean Valin actually set up a wiki to record various definitions and collaborate on consolidating a new definition for adoption at the Canadian Public Relations Society national board meeting February 2009:

Public relations is the strategic management of relationships between an organization and its diverse publics, through the use of communications, to achieve mutual understanding, realize organizational goals, and serve the public interest.

And according to the UK's Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR):

PR is the discipline that looks after reputation, with the aim of earning understanding and support and influencing opinion and behaviour. It is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its publics.

In a conversation with me, Jay O'Connor, CIPR President 2010, extended this definition by stressing the role that public relations must play at board level, helping to explore, define, plan and execute strategy. She particularly underlined its role with respect to reputational risk and opportunity, and good governance.

Note the consistent recurrence of reference to mutuality. Although this is invoked in slightly different ways, I take it to mean all parties having respect and understanding for others' points of view and working together to increase that respect and understanding. Of course, any organization may interact with two or more publics that disagree vehemently between themselves, meaning that the organization cannot be reconciled to all publics. Mutuality, however, doesn’t require reconciliation, but rather continued dialogue with the intent to understand and be understood.

Such emphasis on mutuality is core to the fourth model. And in words from Chapter 1 of the book summing up the findings of Grunig et al.’s Excellence study: 'As a result of good public relations, both management and publics should behave in ways that minimize conflict or manage conflict effectively.'

Two-way symmetric public relations relies on honest and open two-way communication and mutual give-and-take rather than one-way or asymmetric persuasion. It requires a management philosophy that recognizes that no organization stands alone but must instead adjust and adapt what it does and how it does it in order to align itself with its publics on the basis that this can only help not hinder the organization to achieve its objectives.

The Cluetrain Manifesto was the right way to say the right things at the right time, but it appears that its authors took their lead in part from the two-way symmetrical model and Patrick Jackson's compelling ability to convey the theory in practical terms in the pr reporter newsletter and other media. And they, in turn, on the prior perspectives of Edward Bernays (the original PT Barnum style publicist) and Albert Sullivan in the 1950s and 1960s.

For his part in asserting how his models apply in the digital age, Grunig re-endorses the two-way symmetrical model.

It's worth then finishing this section on public relations with an extract from the preface of the Excellence book. This concluded the Excellence team's 15 years of study, so I take its findings seriously:

In a nutshell, we show that the value of public relations comes from the relationships that communicators develop and maintain with publics. We show that reputation is a product of relationships and that the quality of relationships and reputation result more from the behavior of the organization than from the messages that communicators disseminate. We show that public relations can affect management decisions and behavior if it is headed by a manager who is empowered to play an essential role in the strategic management of the organization. In that role, communicators have their greatest value when they bring information into the organization, more than when they disseminate information out of the organization ...

We show that communicators can develop relationships more effectively when they communicate symmetrically with publics rather than asymmetrically.

So there we have it. The definitions of marketing and PR are contentious. They vary, overlap and contradict. These are not exactly ideal foundations on which to move forward, but as this isn't a philosophical treatise we don't require ideals; it's only important that we understand the current landscape.

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